Pest Archives - Page 4 of 6 - West Coast Nut



Walnut Pest Management: Navel Orangeworm and Codling Moth

There are a few pests that have reached what seems like celebrity status in the tree nut industry, with codling moth and navel orangeworm being household names for walnut growers. With research is continuing on how to best eliminate these pests, there are still methods and products that can help with the complications of infestation. Navel orangeworm and codling moth are featured here in this first part of a two-part series focusing on pests in walnut orchards. Navel Orangeworm Navel orangeworm has garnered a lot of attention, as growers and industry personnel continue to battle this pest. When mummy nuts are left on trees, the navel orangeworm identifies these as ideal places to lay eggs. Those eggs—which are a solid white when they are first laid, then turn pink, then reddish orange and overwinter as larvae. This moth starts emerging in April, and peaks in late-April to mid-May. The cycle...

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Don’t Forget Winter Sanitation

First flight numbers of navel orangeworm (NOW) in the Sacramento Valley overall looked low to moderate in pheromone traps, but there are some exceptions to that, according to Emily Symmes, UC Cooperative Extension Area IPM advisor, Sacramento Valley. The more severe winter could have kept first flight numbers down, Symmes continued, but also there was a more prolonged spring flight due to relatively cooler temperatures and numerous rain events, which may have appeared as lower overall abundance in NOW traps during the early flights. “I don’t necessarily think this is a low pressure year from an overall perspective, especially now that we are seeing significant numbers in the third flight” Symmes said. Third and fourth flights, if a fourth flight arrives, are always larger as a result of population build-up, and heat units increasing into the summer reduce the generation time, Symmes said. Trapping  Many growers and pest control...

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LFB in Control for Almonds and Pistachios

When you see adult leaffooted bugs (LFB) in your almond or pistachio orchards, it is time to take action. There is no established threshold for economic damage caused by this piercing-sucking pest, said Kris Tollerup, UC Cooperative Extension area Integrated Pest Management advisor. Traps and lures for LFB are still being evaluated. Visual observation of LFB in an orchard should prompt treatment, advisors said. LFB This large insect pest is a native of California, and has been found in the San Joaquin Valley from Butte to Kern counties. While LFB may be found in most valley locations, there are specific environmental conditions that allow for populations to build. Those conditions include riparian areas, protected overwintering sites and host plants. Almond and pistachio orchards adjacent to those sites can become infested and are vulnerable to crop loss or damage from LFB. Tollerup said he has seen a 50 percent almond crop...

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Protecting the Roots: Nematode Management in Perennial Crops

The agriculture industry often has adversaries, whether they’re pests, diseases, inclement weather, or various regulations. On the flip side, it seems that every year the industry takes progressive steps to effectively handle or work within all those constraints. The problem with nematodes in the soil is no exception, and farmers and researchers work together to battle these parasites. Nematodes in the Orchard: A Brief There are thousands of species of nematodes, existing in nearly every ecosystem reaching from the tropics to Antarctica. These microscopic roundworms exist in beneficial and harmful varieties, with the plant-parasitic nematodes being a significant concern to the farming of crops. Plant-parasitic nematodes can be migratory or sedentary, and can feed from inside (endoparasite) or outside (ectoparasite) a plant’s roots. There are a few that have drawn particular attention from the nut crop farming sector for their damaging effects on orchards. All these plant feeders use a...

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An IPM Approach to Vertebrate Pests

By Cecilia Parsons | Associate Editor

They don’t look that destructive in Disney movies, but vertebrate pests in almond orchards can drive growers and managers nuts. Vertebrate pests run the gamut from coyotes to ground squirrels, to voles and even roof rats. Depending on the species, they can cause yield losses by feeding on nuts, pose food safety issues in the orchard, and damage irrigation lines. Their burrows can slow harvest, damage equipment and pose safety hazards for workers and livestock. Some vertebrate species can also transmit diseases to humans. Vertebrate Pest Pressure Roger Baldwin, a University of California Cooperative Extension (UCCE) specialist in the Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology at UC Davis, said vertebrate pest pressure may depend on the growing region or local environmental conditions, but in general, ground squirrels are the primary culprits in orchards. Roof rats feeding in almond orchards are a recent issue in some areas. Orchards near...

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