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Walnuts



Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation in Walnuts

By Cecilia Parsons Associate Editor

Pulling and replanting a walnut orchard presents many challenges. Planning for treatment of orchard soils to ensure a healthy new orchard includes identifying problems ahead of time and choosing appropriate prevention. Chemical fumigation has been standard practice for replanting orchards, but alternatives are being studied. Though not currently used in commercial walnut production, there have been some large trials to determine if anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is useful in suppressing soilborne pathogens and pests when replanting walnut orchards. Trials were conducted at the UC Kearney Agriculture and Research Center. The practice is being studied as an alternative to using chemical...

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Update on Sterile Insect Program for Control of Navel Orangeworm

By Houston Wilson, Asst. Coop. Extension Specialist, Kearney Ag. Center, Dept. Entomology, UC Riverside
and Chuck Burks, Research Entomologist, USDA-ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center

Sterile insect technique (SIT) makes use of large numbers of sterile insects which are released into wild populations as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (IPM) control strategy. Insects are typically mass-reared in a controlled environment and then ionizing radiation (e.g. x-rays, gamma rays) is used to induce genetic mutations that lead to sterility. The basic idea is that introduction of sterilized individuals into the wild population will limit the successful reproduction of wild individuals and lead to an overall reduction or even eradication of the target pest population (Knipling 1955). Mating with sterile individuals can reduce populations by...

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Mating Disruption: A Crucial Tool for Nut Growers

By Kathy Coatney Editor

Mating disruption for navel orangeworm (NOW) has been widely tested throughout California with numerous research studies, and peer-reviewed research has demonstrated its efficacy. Mating disruption is a very simple process. Females emit pheromones, males use those pheromones to find the female. If an orchard is flooded with artificially produced pheromone the entire orchard smells like a female and the males struggle to find the real females. If they don’t find each other, they don’t mate, and if they don’t mate there are no eggs, no larvae, and less overall nut damage.   Mating Disruption in Almonds and Pistachios Navel orangeworm...

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Managing and Controlling Canker Diseases in Almonds and Walnuts

By Cecilia Parsons Associate Editor

Options to control Botryospaeria (BOT) diseases in tree nut crops include good sanitation and cultural practices to reduce the amount of inoculum in the orchard. University of California plant pathologist Themis Michallides covered the range of BOT diseases that affect walnut, pistachio and almond trees and how growers can reduce infection at the South Valley Nut Conference in Tulare.   Panicle and Shoot Blight of Pistachio Panicle and Shoot Blight of pistachio was discovered in 1984 in a commercial orchard in northern California and has become a disease of major importance. Buds infected by B. dothidea either will not emerge...

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FSMA: Preventative Controls for the Nut Industry

By Safe Food Alliance, Contributing Writer

For our second installment in this series on the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) series, we’re going to talk about the “Preventive Controls” rule, which is the main rule for food processors. It’s similar to the Hazard and Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), with some notable differences which we’ll address below, including some specific requirements that you may not have seen before. Who’s Covered In general, facilities which register with FDA under part 415 of the FD&C act (that is, food processors) have to comply with the rule, unless specifically given an exemption. There are...

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